"OH yet we trust that somehow good
Will be the final goal of ill,
To pangs of nature, sins of will,
Defects of doubt, and taints of blood;

That nothing walks with aimless feet;
That not one life shall be destroy’d,
Or cast as rubbish to the void,
When God hath made the pile complete;

That not a worm is cloven in vain;
That not a moth with vain desire
Is shrivell’d in a fruitless fire,
Or but subserves another’s gain.

Behold, we know not anything;
I can but trust that good shall fall
At last—far off—at last, to all,
And every winter change to spring.

So runs my dream: but what am I?
An infant crying in the night:
An infant crying for the light:
And with no language but a cry."
-

Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–1892)

from In Memoriam

canto 54

tennyson poem poetry verse death coping healing grieve loss

The Pueblo Revolt August 21, 1680:

A Pueblo Indian uprising against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico.   The Pueblo killed 400 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province.  From 1540 to 1600 the Pueblos were subjected to seven successive waves of soldiers, missionaries and settlers.  These encounters, referred to as the Entradas, were characterized by violent confrontations between Spanish colonists and Pueblo Peoples. The Tiwa War, fought in the winter of 1540-41 by the expedition of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado against the twelve or thirteen pueblos of Tiwa Indians was particularly destructive to Pueblo and Spanish relations.

Under the Spanish Encomienda system, pueblos were forced to provide tribute to the colonists in the form of labor, ground corn and textiles.  Franciscan priests established theocracies in many of the Pueblo villages in which traditional religious practice was forbidden.  Fray Alonso de Posada “forbade Kachina dances by the Pueblo Indians and ordered the missionaries to seize every mask, prayer stick, and effigy they could lay their hands on and burn them.  Several Spanish officials, such as Nicolas de Aguilar, who attempted to curb the power of the Franciscans were charged with heresy and tried before the Inquisition.

In 1675, during a time of severe drought,  Governor Juan Francisco Treviño ordered the arrest of forty-seven Pueblo medicine men and accused them of practicing “sorcery”.  Four medicine men were sentenced to death by hanging; three of those sentences were carried out, while the fourth prisoner committed suicide. The remaining men were publicly whipped and sentenced to prison. When this news reached the Pueblo leaders, they moved in force to Santa Fe where the prisoners were held.  Because a large number of Spanish soldiers were away fighting the Apache, Governor Treviño was forced to accede to the Pueblo demand for the release of the prisoners.  Among those released was an Indian named “Popé”.

Following his release, Popé, along with a number of other Pueblo leaders, planned and orchestrated the Pueblo Revolt. Popé took up residence in Taos Pueblo.  With the support of the Northern Tiwa, Tewa, Towa, Tano, and Keres-speaking Pueblos of the Rio Grande Valley the Pueblos joining the revolt probably had 2,000 or more adult men capable of utilizing native weapons such as bows and arrows.  It is possible that some Apache and Navajo participated in the revolt.  The Spanish could only muster 170 men with arms.

Popé’s plan was that the inhabitants of each Pueblo would rise up and kill the Spanish in their area and then all would advance on Santa Fe to kill or expel all the remaining Spanish.  The date set for the uprising was August 11, 1680.  Popé dispatched runners to all the Pueblos carrying knotted cords. Each morning the Pueblo leadership was to untie one knot from the cord, and when the last knot was untied, that would be the signal for them to rise against the Spaniards in unison.  On August 9, however, the Spaniards were warned of the impending revolt by southern Tiwa leaders and they captured two Tesuque Pueblo youths entrusted with carrying the message to the pueblos.  They were tortured to make them reveal the significance of the knotted cord.

Popé then ordered that the revolt begin immediately.  The Hopi pueblos located on the remote Hopi Mesas of Arizona did not receive the advanced notice for the beginning of the revolt and followed the schedule for the revolt.  On August 10, the Pueblos rose up, stole Spanish horses to prevent them fleeing, sealed off roads leading to Santa Fe, and pillaged Spanish settlements.  A total of 400 people were killed, including men, women, children, and 21 of the 33 Franciscan missionaries in New Mexico.  Survivors fled to Santa Fe and Isleta Pueblo, 10 miles south of Albuquerque and one of the Pueblos that did not participate in the rebellion.  By August 13, all the Spanish settlements in New Mexico had been destroyed and Santa Fe was besieged.  The Pueblo surrounded the city and cut off its water supply.  In desperation, on August 21, New Mexico Governor Antonio de Otermín, barricaded in the Governor’s Palace, sallied outside the palace with all of his available men and forced the Pueblo to retreat with heavy losses.  He then led the Spaniards out of the city and retreated southward along the Rio Grande, headed for El Paso del Norte.  The Pueblo shadowed the Spaniards but did not attack.  The Spaniards who had taken refuge in Isleta had also retreated southward on August 15 and on September 6 the two groups of survivors, numbering 1,946, met at Socorro.  About 500 of the survivors were Indian slaves. They were escorted to El Paso by a Spanish supply train.  The Pueblo did not contest their passage out of New Mexico.

pueblo tiwa new mexico revolt peublo revolt indians spanish encomienda Spain Kachina Taos Santa Fe Po-pay Hopi

We Are Seven

A SIMPLE Child,
That lightly draws its breath,
And feels its life in every limb,
What should it know of death?

I met a little cottage Girl:
She was eight years old, she said;
Her hair was thick with many a curl
That clustered round her head.

She had a rustic, woodland air,
And she was wildly clad:
Her eyes were fair, and very fair;
—Her beauty made me glad.

"Sisters and brothers, little Maid,
How many may you be?”
"How many? Seven in all," she said
And wondering looked at me.

"And where are they? I pray you tell."
She answered, “Seven are we;
And two of us at Conway dwell,
And two are gone to sea.

"Two of us in the church-yard lie,
My sister and my brother;
And, in the church-yard cottage, I
Dwell near them with my mother.”

"You say that two at Conway dwell,
And two are gone to sea,
Yet ye are seven!—I pray you tell,
Sweet Maid, how this may be.”

Then did the little Maid reply,
"Seven boys and girls are we;
Two of us in the church-yard lie,
Beneath the church-yard tree.”

"You run about, my little Maid,
Your limbs they are alive;
If two are in the church-yard laid,
Then ye are only five.”

"Their graves are green, they may be seen,"
The little Maid replied,
"Twelve steps or more from my mother’s door,
And they are side by side.

"My stockings there I often knit,
My kerchief there I hem;
And there upon the ground I sit,
And sing a song to them.

"And often after sunset, Sir,
When it is light and fair,
I take my little porringer,
And eat my supper there.

"The first that died was sister Jane;
In bed she moaning lay,
Till God released her of her pain;
And then she went away.

"So in the church-yard she was laid;
And, when the grass was dry,
Together round her grave we played,
My brother John and I.

"And when the ground was white with snow,
And I could run and slide,
My brother John was forced to go,
And he lies by her side.”

"How many are you, then," said I,
"If they two are in heaven?"
Quick was the little Maid’s reply,
"O Master! we are seven."

"But they are dead; those two are dead!
Their spirits are in heaven!”
'Twas throwing words away; for still
The little Maid would have her will,
And said, “Nay, we are seven!”

  —- William Wordsworth

poetry wordsworth we are seven death memory hope remember innocence

August 15, 1977: What may be the best evidence yet for extraterrestrial intelligence, the “Big Ear”, a radio telescope operated by Ohio State University as part of the SETI (Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence) project, received an extremely powerful radio signal from deep space; the event is named the “Wow! signal” from the notation made by a volunteer on the project. The signal bore the expected hallmarks of non-terrestrial and non-Solar System origin. It lasted for the full 72-second window that Big Ear was able to observe it, and has never been detected again. Amazed at how closely the signal matched the expected signature of an interstellar signal in the antenna used, researcher Jerry Ehman circled the signal on the computer printout and wrote the comment “Wow!” on its side. This comment became the name of the signal.

The frequency of the Wow! signal matches very closely with the hydrogen line, which is at 1420.40575177 MHz. The hydrogen line frequency is significant for SETI searchers because, it is reasoned, hydrogen is the most common element in the universe, and hydrogen resonates at about 1420.40575177 MHz, so extraterrestrials might use that frequency to transmit a strong signal.

Wow! has tantalized by evading almost every suggestion put forth to explain it. For one reason, that frequency range is protected; nobody on Earth is allowed to transmit on that frequency. We know the signal did not come from an aircraft or spacecraft passing overhead, because the signal was consistent with a point in the sky that was not moving. No known planets or asteroids were in a position that they could have reflected the signal toward Earth. Any space debris would have had to be absolutely still in space relative to the Big Ear, which is unlikely, and not tumbling, which is also unlikely. Even complicated astronomical effects like gravitational lensing and interstellar scintillation (basically twinkling like that which we observe stars doing visually) have technical reasons that make them very poor candidates to explain Wow!

seti ufo extra terrestrial aliens martian telescope radio telescope space e.t.

Everything that my life meant has changed for the better.